Fourdrinier Paper Machine:
A papermaking machine invented by the Frenchman, Nicolas Louis Robert in 1798, developed in England by Brian Donkin for Henry and Sealy Fourdrinier, but not placed into operation until 1804
The Fourdrinier Paper Machine was the first papermaking machine to make continuous paper. Prior to this machine, paper was made in single separate sheets.
The first Fourdrinier machine in the US was imported from England and erected in Saugerties, New York, in 1827. The second was built in Connecticut by mechanic George Spafford. He and his partner, James Phelps, completed the first American-built fourdrinier in May 1829 and sold it to Amos Hubbard at a cost of $2,426.
Instead of placing the stock, or watery pulp, onto individual screens, the Fourdrinier machine used a continuous screen, or wire, made of woven wires, that moved like an endless belt. The stock was sprayed or dropped onto the moving wire. The water was drained and sucked out through the porous screen. The stock is usually about 3% solids when it is placed on the wire and is about 7% solids by the time it gets to the end of the wire.
At the end of the wire, the stock is picked off the felt from above (at the couch roll) by a felt which is moving at the same speed. Often, the stock then goes through a series of rollers that squeeze and/or suck more water out of the stock. This section is called the press section. By the end of the press section, the stock is usually 40-50% solids.